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Rutherford's gold scattering experiment is an important event in the history of science because it led to the discovery of the nucleus.
In chemistry, the molar mass is an important quantity. It measures the mass of a mole of a given substance.
The formula mass is often confused with the molar mass or the molecular mass, but it differs from both. As the name suggests, it has some relation with the formula of a molecule. The formula mass is a mass calculated using the formula. It is determined by adding the average atomic masses of the atoms present in a molecule.
The atomic weight (also known as relative atomic mass) is a quantity used to express the average weight of an atom. Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are mainly responsible for the mass of an atom. For a given element, the proton number (more commonly known as the atomic number) is fixed, but the neutron number can vary. Such elements are called isotopes. Because of this variance in the neutron number, an atom of the same element can have a different atomic mass.
An atom comprises electrons, protons, and neutrons. Electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom just like the Earth around the Sun. Protons and neutrons reside in the centre of an atom called nucleus. Electrons are negatively charged while protons are positively charged. Neutrons are neutral i.e., no charge. In an unbounded stable atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons. This makes the net charge of an atom zero. These number of protons are unique for a given element, and the number is called the atomic number or proton number.
The molar mass constant is a quantity similar to the atomic mass constant. The constant, as from the name, is related to the molar mass of carbon-12.
The atomic mass constant is used to define the atomic mass unit (or the unified atomic mass). It equals one atomic mass unit. The atomic mass unit is the standard unit used to quantify mass on the atomic scale. Also, the atomic mass unit, the unified mass unit, and the dalton are all synonymous units and are interchangeably used.
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