Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals
Lanthanoids
Actinoids
Post-transition Metals
Metalloids
Other Nonmetals
Noble Gases
1 H Hydrogen 1.008 1
Melting Point: 14.01K
Boiling Point: 20.28K
Density: 0.0899 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 1312.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.1805 W/mK
Heat: 14300 J/kgK
2 He Helium 4.0026 2
Melting Point: 0 K
Boiling Point: 4.22 K
Density: 0.1785 kg/m3
Valence: 0
Ionization: 2372.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.1513 W/mK
Heat: 5193.1 J/kgK
3 Li Lithium 6.94 2
1
Melting Point: 453.69 K
Boiling Point: 1615 K
Density: 535 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 520.2 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 85 W/mK
Heat: 3570 J/kgK
11 Na Sodium 22.99 2
8
1
Melting Point: 370.87 K
Boiling Point: 1156 K
Density: 968 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 495.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 140 W/mK
Heat: 1230 J/kgK
19 K Potassium 39.098 2
8
8
1
Melting Point: 336.53 K
Boiling Point: 1032 K
Density: 856 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 418.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 100 W/mK
Heat: 757 J/kgK
37 Rb Rubidium 85.468 2
8
18
8
1
Melting Point: 312.46 K
Boiling Point: 961 K
Density: 1532 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 403.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 58 W/mK
Heat: 364 J/kgK
55 Cs Caesium 132.91 2
8
18
18
8
1
Melting Point: 301.59 K
Boiling Point: 944 K
Density: 1879 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 375.7 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 36 W/mK
Heat: 242 J/kgK
87 Fr Francium (223) 2
8
18
32
18
8
1
Melting Point: 300 K
Boiling Point: 950 K
Density: Unknow
Valence: 1
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
4 Be Beryllium 9.0122 2
2
Melting Point: 1560 K
Boiling Point: 2743 K
Density: 1848 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 899.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 190 W/mK
Heat: 1820 J/kgK
12 Mg Magnesium 24.305 2
8
2
Melting Point: 923 K
Boiling Point: 1363 K
Density: 1738 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 737.7 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 160 W/mK
Heat: 1020 J/kgK
20 Ca Calcium 40.078 2
8
8
2
Melting Point: 1115 K
Boiling Point: 1757 K
Density: 1550 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 589.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 200 W/mK
Heat: 631 J/kgK
38 Sr Strontium 87.62 2
8
18
8
2
Melting Point: 1050 K
Boiling Point: 1655 K
Density: 2630 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 549.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 35 W/mK
Heat: 300 J/kgK
56 Ba Barium 137.33 2
8
18
18
8
2
Melting Point: 1000 K
Boiling Point: 2143 K
Density: 3510 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 502.9 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 18 W/mK
Heat: 205 J/kgK
88 Ra Radium (226) 2
8
18
32
18
8
2
Melting Point: 973 K
Boiling Point: 2010 K
Density: 5000 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 509.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 19 W/mK
Heat: 92.0 J/kgK
21 Sc Scandium 44.956 2
8
9
2
Melting Point: 1814 K
Boiling Point: 3103 K
Density: 2985 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 633.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 16 W/mK
Heat: 567 J/kgK
39 Y Yttrium 88.906 2
8
18
9
2
Melting Point: 1799 K
Boiling Point: 3618 K
Density: 4472 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 600 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 17 W/mK
Heat: 298 J/kgK
22 Ti Titanium 47.867 2
8
10
2
Melting Point: 1941 K
Boiling Point: 3560 K
Density: 4507 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 658.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 22 W/mK
Heat: 520 J/kgK
40 Zr Zirconium 91.224 2
8
18
10
2
Melting Point: 2128 K
Boiling Point: 4682 K
Density: 6511 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 640.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 23 W/mK
Heat: 278 J/kgK
72 Hf Hafnium 178.49 2
8
18
32
10
2
Melting Point: 2506 K
Boiling Point: 4876 K
Density: 13310 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 658.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 23 W/mK
Heat: 144 J/kgK
104 Rf Rutherfordium (267) 2
8
18
32
32
10
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 4
Ionization: 580 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
23 V Vanadium 50.942 2
8
11
2
Melting Point: 2183 K
Boiling Point: 3680 K
Density: 6110 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 650.9 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 31 W/mK
Heat: 489 J/kgK
41 Nb Niobium 92.906 2
8
18
12
1
Melting Point: 2750 K
Boiling Point: 5017 K
Density: 8570 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 652.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 54 W/mK
Heat: 265 J/kgK
73 Ta Tantalum 180.95 2
8
18
32
11
2
Melting Point: 3290 K
Boiling Point: 5731 K
Density: 16650 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 761 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 57 W/mK
Heat: 140 J/kgK
105 Db Dubnium (268) 2
8
18
32
32
11
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 5
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
24 Cr Chromium 51.996 2
8
13
1
Melting Point: 2180 K
Boiling Point: 2944 K
Density: 7140 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 64.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 94 W/mK
Heat: 448 J/kgK
42 Mo Molybdenum 95.95 2
8
18
13
1
Melting Point: 2896 K
Boiling Point: 4912 K
Density: 10280 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 684.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 139 W/mK
Heat: 251 J/kgK
74 W Tungsten 183.84 2
8
18
32
12
2
Melting Point: 3695 K
Boiling Point: 5828 K
Density: 19250 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 770 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 170 W/mK
Heat: 132 J/kgK
106 Sg Seaborgium (269) 2
8
18
32
32
12
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 6
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
25 Mn Manganese 54.938 2
8
13
2
Melting Point: 1519 K
Boiling Point: 2334 K
Density: 7470 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 717.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 7.8 W/mK
Heat: 479 J/kgK
43 Tc Technetium (98) 2
8
18
13
2
Melting Point: 2430 K
Boiling Point: 4538 K
Density: 11500 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 702 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 51 W/mK
Heat: 63 J/kgK
75 Re Rhenium 186.21 2
8
18
32
13
2
Melting Point: 3459 K
Boiling Point: 5869 K
Density: 21020 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 760 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 48 W/mK
Heat: 137 J/kgK
107 Bh Bohrium (270) 2
8
18
32
32
13
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 7
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
26 Fe Iron 55.845 2
8
14
2
Melting Point: 1811 K
Boiling Point: 3134 K
Density: 7874 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 762.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 80 W/mK
Heat: 449 J/kgK
44 Ru Ruthenium 101.07 2
8
18
15
1
Melting Point: 2607 K
Boiling Point: 4423 K
Density: 12370 kg/m3
Valence: 8
Ionization: 710.2 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 120 W/mK
Heat: 238 J/kgK
77 Ir Iridium 192.22 2
8
18
32
15
2
Melting Point: 2739 K
Boiling Point: 4701 K
Density: 22650 kg/m3
Valence: 8
Ionization: 880 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 150 W/mK
Heat: 131 J/kgK
76 Os Osmium 190.23 2
8
18
32
14
2
Melting Point: 3306 K
Boiling Point: 5285 K
Density: 22610 kg/m3
Valence: 8
Ionization: 840 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 88 W/mK
Heat: 130 J/kgK
108 Hs Hassium (270) 2
8
18
32
32
14
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 8
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
27 Co Cobalt 58.933 2
8
15
2
Melting Point: 1768 K
Boiling Point: 3200 K
Density: 8900 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 760.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 100 W/mK
Heat: 421 J/kgK
45 Rh Rhodium 102.91 2
8
18
16
1
Melting Point: 2237 K
Boiling Point: 3968 K
Density: 12450 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 719.7 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 150 W/mK
Heat: 240 J/kgK
109 Mt Meitnerium (278) 2
8
18
32
32
15
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
28 Ni Nickel 58.693 2
8
16
2
Melting Point: 1728 K
Boiling Point: 3186 K
Density: 8908 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 737.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 91 W/mK
Heat: 445 J/kgK
46 Pd Palladium 106.42 2
8
18
18
Melting Point: 1828.05 K
Boiling Point: 3236 K
Density: 12023 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 804.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 72 W/mK
Heat: 240 J/kgK
112 Cn Copernicium (285) 2
8
18
32
32
18
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
78 Pt Platinum 195.08 2
8
18
32
17
1
Melting Point: 2041.4 K
Boiling Point: 4098 K
Density: 21090 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 870 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 72 W/mK
Heat: 133 J/kgK
110 Ds Darmstadtium (281) 2
8
18
32
32
17
1
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
29 Cu Copper 63.546 2
8
18
1
Melting Point: 1357.77 K
Boiling Point: 3200 K
Density: 8920 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 745.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 400 W/mK
Heat: 384 J/kgK
47 Ag Silver 107.87 2
8
18
18
1
Melting Point: 1234.93 K
Boiling Point: 2435 K
Density: 10490 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 731.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 430 W/mK
Heat: 235 J/kgK
79 Au Gold 196.97 2
8
18
32
18
1
Melting Point: 1337.33 K
Boiling Point: 3129 K
Density: 19300 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 890.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 320 W/mK
Heat: 129.1 J/kgK
30 Zn Zinc 65.38 2
8
18
2
Melting Point: 692.68 K
Boiling Point: 1180 K
Density: 7140 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 906.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 120 W/mK
Heat: 388 J/kgK
48 Cd Cadmium 112.41 2
8
18
18
2
Melting Point: 594.22 K
Boiling Point: 1040 K
Density: 8650 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 867.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 97 W/mK
Heat: 230 J/kgK
80 Hg Mercury 200.59 2
8
18
32
18
2
Melting Point: 234.32 K
Boiling Point: 629.88 K
Density: 13534 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 1007.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 8.3 W/mK
Heat: 139.5 J/kgK
111 Rg Roentgenium (282) 2
8
18
32
32
17
2
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
113 Nh Nihonium (286) 2
8
18
32
32
18
3
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
115 Mc Moscovium (290) 2
8
18
32
32
18
5
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
116 Lv Livermorium (293) 2
8
18
32
32
18
6
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
117 Ts Tennessine (294) 2
8
18
32
32
18
7
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
118 Og Oganesson (294) 2
8
18
32
32
18
8
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
10 Ne Neon 20.180 2
8
Melting Point: 24.56 K
Boiling Point: 27.07 K
Density: 0.9 kg/m3
Valence: 0
Ionization: 2080.7 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.0491 W/mK
Heat: 1030.0 J/kgK
18 Ar Argon 39.948 2
8
8
Melting Point: 83.8 K
Boiling Point: 87.3 K
Density: 1.784 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 1520.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.01772 W/mK
Heat: 520.33 J/kgK
36 Kr Krypton 83.798 2
8
18
8
Melting Point: 115.79 K
Boiling Point: 119.93 K
Density: 3.75 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 1350.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.00943 W/mK
Heat: 248.05 J/kgK
54 Xe Xenon 131.29 2
8
18
18
8
Melting Point: 161.3 K
Boiling Point: 165.1 K
Density: 5.9 kg/m3
Valence: 8
Ionization: 1170.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.00565 W/mK
Heat: 158.32 J/kgK
86 Rn Radon (222) 2
8
18
32
18
8
Melting Point: 202 K
Boiling Point: 211.3 K
Density: 9.73 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 1037 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.00361 W/mK
Heat: 93.65 J/kgK
5 B Boron 10.81 2
3
Melting Point: 2348 K
Boiling Point: 4273 K
Density: 2460 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 800.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 27 W/mK
Heat: 1030 J/kgK
14 Si Silicon 28.085 2
8
4
Melting Point: 1687 K
Boiling Point: 3173 K
Density: 2330 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 786.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 150 W/mK
Heat: 710 J/kgK
32 Ge Germanium 72.630 2
8
18
4
Melting Point: 1211.4 K
Boiling Point: 3093 K
Density: 5323 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 762 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 60 W/mK
Heat: 321.4 J/kgK
33 As Arsenic 74.922 2
8
18
5
Melting Point: 1090 K
Boiling Point: 887 K
Density: 5727 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 947.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 50 W/mK
Heat: 328 J/kgK
51 Sb Antimony 121.76 2
8
18
18
5
Melting Point: 903.78 K
Boiling Point: 1860 K
Density: 6697 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 834 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 24 W/mK
Heat: 207 J/kgK
5 B Boron 10.81 2
3
Melting Point: 2348 K
Boiling Point: 4273 K
Density: 2460 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 800.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 27 W/mK
Heat: 1030 J/kgK
52 Te Tellurium 127.60 2
8
18
18
6
Melting Point: 722.66 K
Boiling Point: 1261 K
Density: 6240 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 869.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 3 W/mK
Heat: 201 J/kgK
85 At Astatine (210) 2
8
18
32
18
7
Melting Point: 575 K
Boiling Point: 610 K
Density: Unknow
Valence: 7
Ionization: 890 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 2 W/mK
Heat: Unknow
6 C Carbon 12.011 2
4
Melting Point: 3823 K
Boiling Point: 4300 K
Density: 2260 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 1086.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 140 W/mK
Heat: 710 J/kgK
7 N Nitrogen 14.007 2
5
Melting Point: 63.05 K
Boiling Point: 77.36 K
Density: 1.251 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 1402.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.02583 W/mK
Heat: 1040 J/kgK
8 O Oxygen 15.999 2
4
Melting Point: 54.8 K
Boiling Point: 90.2 K
Density: 1.429 kg/m3
Valence: 2
Ionization: 1313.9 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.02658 W/mK
Heat: 919 J/kgK
9 F Fluorine 18.998 2
7
Melting Point: 53.5 K
Boiling Point: 85.03 K
Density: 1.696 kg/m3
Valence: 1
Ionization: 1681.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.0277 W/mK
Heat: 824 J/kgK
15 P Phosphorus 30.974 2
8
5
Melting Point: 317.3 K
Boiling Point: 553.6 K
Density: 1823 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 1011.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.236 W/mK
Heat: 769.7 J/kgK
16 S Sulfur 32.06 2
8
6
Melting Point: 388.36 K
Boiling Point: 717.87 K
Density: 1960 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 999.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.205 W/mK
Heat: 705 J/kgK
17 Cl Chlorine 35.45 2
8
7
Melting Point: 171.6 K
Boiling Point: 239.11 K
Density: 3.214 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 1251.2 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.0089 W/mK
Heat: 478.2 J/kgK
34 Se Selenium 78.971 2
8
18
6
Melting Point: 494 K
Boiling Point: 958 K
Density: 4819 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 941.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.52 W/mK
Heat: 321.2 J/kgK
53 I Iodine 126.90 2
8
18
18
7
Melting Point: 386.85 K
Boiling Point: 457.4 K
Density: 4940 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 1008.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.449 W/mK
Heat: 429.0 J/kgK
35 Br Bromine 79.904 2
8
18
7
Melting Point: 265.8 K
Boiling Point: 332 K
Density: 3120 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 1139.9 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 0.12 W/mK
Heat: 947.3 J/kgK
13 Al Aluminium 26.982 2
8
3
Melting Point: 933.47 K
Boiling Point: 2792 K
Density: 2700 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 577.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 235 W/mK
Heat: 904 J/kgK
31 Ga Gallium 69.723 2
8
18
3
Melting Point: 302.91 K
Boiling Point: 2477 K
Density: 5904 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 578.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 29 W/mK
Heat: 371 J/kgK
49 In Indium 114.82 2
8
18
18
3
Melting Point: 429.75 K
Boiling Point: 2345 K
Density: 7310 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 558.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 82 W/mK
Heat: 233 J/kgK
50 Sn Tin 118.71 2
8
18
18
4
Melting Point: 505.08 K
Boiling Point: 2875 K
Density: 7310 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 708.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 67 W/mK
Heat: 217 J/kgK
81 Tl Thallium 204.38 2
8
18
32
18
3
Melting Point: 577 K
Boiling Point: 1746 K
Density: 11850 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 580.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 46 W/mK
Heat: 129 J/kgK
82 Pb Lead 207.2 2
8
18
32
18
4
Melting Point: 600.61 K
Boiling Point: 2022 K
Density: 11340 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 715.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 35 W/mK
Heat: 127 J/kgK
83 Bi Bismuth 208.98 2
8
18
32
18
5
Melting Point: 544.4 K
Boiling Point: 1837 K
Density: 9780 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 703 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 8 W/mK
Heat: 122 J/kgK
84 Po Polonium (209) 2
8
18
32
18
6
Melting Point: 527 K
Boiling Point: 1235 K
Density: 9196 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 812.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
114 Fl Flerovium (289) 2
8
18
32
32
18
4
Melting Point: Unknow
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: Unknow
Ionization: Unknow
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
57-71 La-Lu Lanthanoids 138.91-174.97
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. These elements, along with the chemically similar elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as the rare earth elements.
89-103 Ac-Lr Actinoids (227)-(266)
The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
57 La Lanthanum 138.91 2
8
18
18
9
2
Melting Point: 1193 K
Boiling Point: 3737 K
Density: 6146 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 538.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 13 W/mK
Heat: 195 J/kgK
58 Ce Cerium 140.12 2
8
18
19
9
2
Melting Point: 1071 K
Boiling Point: 3633 K
Density: 6689 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 534.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 11 W/mK
Heat: 192 J/kgK
59 Pr Praseodymium 140.91 2
8
18
21
8
2
Melting Point: 1204 K
Boiling Point: 3563 K
Density: 6640 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 537 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 13 W/mK
Heat: 193 J/kgK
60 Nd Neodymium 144.24 2
8
18
22
8
2
Melting Point: 1294 K
Boiling Point: 3373 K
Density: 7010 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 533.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 17 W/mK
Heat: 190 J/kgK
61 Pm Promethium (145) 2
8
18
23
8
2
Melting Point: 1373 K
Boiling Point: 3273 K
Density: 7264 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 540 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 15 W/mK
Heat: Unknow
62 Sm Samarium 150.36 2
8
18
24
8
2
Melting Point: 1345 K
Boiling Point: 2076 K
Density: 7353 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 544.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 13 W/mK
Heat: 196 J/kgK
63 Eu Europium 151.96 2
8
18
25
8
2
Melting Point: 1095 K
Boiling Point: 1800 K
Density: 5244 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 547.1 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 14 W/mK
Heat: 182 J/kgK
64 Gd Gadolinium 157.25 2
8
18
25
9
2
Melting Point: 1586 K
Boiling Point: 3523 K
Density: 7901 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 593.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 11 W/mK
Heat: 240 J/kgK
65 Tb Terbium 158.93 2
8
18
27
8
2
Melting Point: 1629 K
Boiling Point: 3503 K
Density: 8219 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 565.8 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 11 W/mK
Heat: 182 J/kgK
66 Dy Dysprosium 162.50 2
8
18
28
8
2
Melting Point: 1685 K
Boiling Point: 2840 K
Density: 8551 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 573.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 11 W/mK
Heat: 167 J/kgK
67 Ho Holmium 164.93 2
8
18
29
8
2
Melting Point: 1747 K
Boiling Point: 2973 K
Density: 8795 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 581.0 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 16 W/mK
Heat: 165 J/kgK
68 Er Erbium 167.26 2
8
18
30
8
2
Melting Point: 1770 K
Boiling Point: 3141 K
Density: 9066 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 589.3 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 15 W/mK
Heat: 168 J/kgK
69 Tm Thulium 168.93 2
8
18
31
8
2
Melting Point: 1818 K
Boiling Point: 2223 K
Density: 9321 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 596.7 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 17 W/mK
Heat: 160 J/kgK
70 Yb Ytterbium 173.05 2
8
18
32
8
2
Melting Point: 1092 K
Boiling Point: 1469 K
Density: 6570 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 603.4 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 39 W/mK
Heat: 154 J/kgK
71 Lu Lutetium 174.97 2
8
18
28
9
2
Melting Point: 174.97 K
Boiling Point: 3675 K
Density: 9841 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 523.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 16 W/mK
Heat: 154 J/kgK
89 Ac Actinium (227) 2
8
18
32
18
9
2
Melting Point: 1323 K
Boiling Point: 3473 K
Density: 10070 kg/m3
Valence: 3
Ionization: 499 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 12 W/mK
Heat: 120 J/kgK
90 Th Thorium 232.04 2
8
18
32
18
10
2
Melting Point: 2023 K
Boiling Point: 5093 K
Density: 11724 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 587 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 54 W/mK
Heat: 118 J/kgK
91 Pa Protactinium 231.04 2
8
18
32
20
9
2
Melting Point: 1845 K
Boiling Point: 4273 K
Density: 15370 kg/m3
Valence: 5
Ionization: 568 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 47 W/mK
Heat: 99.1 J/kgK
92 U Uranium 238.03 2
8
18
32
21
9
2
Melting Point: 1408 K
Boiling Point: 4200 K
Density: 19050 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 597.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 27 W/mK
Heat: 116 J/kgK
93 Np Neptunium (237) 2
8
18
32
22
9
2
Melting Point: 917 K
Boiling Point: 4273 K
Density: 20450 kg/m3
Valence: 7
Ionization: 604.5 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 6 W/mK
Heat: Unknow
94 Pu Plutonium (244) 2
8
18
32
24
8
2
Melting Point: 913 K
Boiling Point: 3503 K
Density: 19816 kg/m3
Valence: 8
Ionization: 584.7 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 6 W/mK
Heat: Unknow
95 Am Americium (243) 2
8
18
32
25
8
2
Melting Point: 1449 K
Boiling Point: 2284 K
Density: Unknow
Valence: 6
Ionization: 578 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 10 W/mK
Heat: Unknow
96 Cm Curium (247) 2
8
18
32
25
9
2
Melting Point: 1618 K
Boiling Point: 3383 K
Density: 13510 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 581 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
92 U Uranium 238.03 2
8
18
32
21
9
2
Melting Point: 1408 K
Boiling Point: 4200 K
Density: 19050 kg/m3
Valence: 6
Ionization: 597.6 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 27 W/mK
Heat: 116 J/kgK
97 Bk Berkelium (247) 2
8
18
32
27
8
2
Melting Point: 1323 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: 14780 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 601 kJ/mol
Conductivity: 10 W/mK
Heat: Unknow
98 Cf Califomium (251) 2
8
18
32
28
8
2
Melting Point: 1173 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: 15100 kg/m3
Valence: 4
Ionization: 608 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
99 Es Einsteinium (252) 2
8
18
32
29
8
2
Melting Point: 1133 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 3
Ionization: 619 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
100 Fm Fermium (257) 2
8
18
32
30
8
2
Melting Point: 1800 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 3
Ionization: 627 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
101 Md Mendelevium (258) 2
8
18
32
31
8
2
Melting Point: 1100 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 3
Ionization: 635 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
102 No Nobelium (259) 2
8
18
32
32
8
2
Melting Point: 1100 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 3
Ionization: 642 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
103 Lr Lawrencium (266) 2
8
18
32
30
8
3
Melting Point: 1900 K
Boiling Point: Unknow
Density: Unknow
Valence: 3
Ionization: 470 kJ/mol
Conductivity: Unknow
Heat: Unknow
1 H 1.008
2 He 4.0026
3 Li 6.94
4 Be 9.0122
10 Ne 20.180
9 F 18.998
8 O 15.999
7 N 14.007
6 C 12.011
5 B 10.81
11 Na 22.99
12 Mg 24.305
18 Ar 39.948
17 Cl 35.45
16 S 32.06
15 P 30.974
14 Si 28.085
13 Al 26.982
19 K 39.098
20 Ca 40.078
21 Sc 44.956
22 Ti 47.867
23 V 50.942
24 Cr 51.996
25 Mn 54.938
26 Fe 55.845
27 Co 58.933
28 Ni 58.693
29 Cu 63.546
30 Zn 65.38
31 Ga 69.723
32 Ge 72.630
33 As 74.922
34 Se 78.971
35 Br 79.904
36 Kr 83.798
37 Rb 85.468
38 Sr 87.62
39 Y 88.906
40 Zr 91.224
41 Nb 92.906
42 Mo 95.95
43 Tc (98)
44 Ru 101.07
45 Rh 102.91
46 Pd 106.42
47 Ag 107.87
48 Cd 112.41
49 In 114.82
50 Sn 118.71
51 Sb 121.76
52 Te 127.60
53 I 126.90
54 Xe 131.29
55 Cs 132.91
56 Ba 137.33
72 Hf 178.49
73 Ta 180.95
74 W 183.84
75 Re 186.21
76 Os 190.23
77 Ir 192.22
78 Pt 195.08
79 Au 196.97
80 Hg 200.59
81 Tl 204.38
82 Pb 207.2
83 Bi 208.98
84 Po (209)
85 At (210)
86 Rn (222)
87 Fr (223)
88 Ra (226)
104 Rf (267)
105 Db (268)
106 Sg (269)
107 Bh (270)
108 Hs (270)
109 Mt (278)
110 Ds (281)
111 Rg (282)
112 Cn (285)
113 Nh (286)
114 Fl (289)
115 Mc (290)
116 Lv (293)
117 Ts (294)
118 Og (294)
57 La 138.91
58 Ce 140.12
59 Pr 140.91
60 Nd 144.24
61 Pm (145)
62 Sm 150.36
63 Eu 151.96
64 Gd 157.25
65 Tb 158.93
66 Dy 162.50
67 Ho 164.93
68 Er 167.26
69 Tm 168.93
70 Yb 173.05
71 Lu 174.97
89 Ac (227)
90 Th 232.04
91 Pa 231.04
92 U 238.03
93 Np (237)
94 Pu (244)
95 Am (243)
96 Cm (247)
97 Bk (247)
98 Cf (251)
99 Es (252)
100 Fm (257)
101 Md (258)
102 No (259)
103 Lr (266)

Periodic Table

The periodic table also is known as the periodic table of elements is one of the most important concepts of chemistry, both in principle and in practice. It is the arrangement of elements in such a way that it has a pattern in atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties.

Periodic table displays the fact that the chemical elements have periodic trends and lie together in families, are not a cluster of random elements. Learning how the periodic table is built-up is very essential to know how the world around us is just a combination of these elements in different proportions.

If you want to learn all about chemistry and chemical reactions then it is very likely you have to refer the periodic table, so here we will learn what is history of periodic table, existence of today's modern periodic table, different classification of elements, logical consequence of electronic configuration of atoms, periodic trends, 4-blocks, examining physical and chemical properties of the elements etc.

Why do We Need Classification Elements ?

If you know little about chemistry then by now you know that the world of chemistry is infinite. In 1800 only 31 elements were known, in 1865 scientists were able to identify 63 elements, right now we have 118 elements and in future, we will be able to know the existence of other elements too.

Elements with a higher atomic number were not found natural but were synthesized in laboratories like Og, Lv, Ts, Mc, etc. We have all types of elements with similar properties, different properties, with intermediate properties and different variations of chemical reactions. So to make things easy we created the periodic table, now called a modern periodic table to understand how the chemistry of this universe works and how elements(atoms) show a sequence with increasing atomic number.

History of Periodic Table

Through the number of experiments and observations, scientists were able to group element by developing periodic law and periodic table in a systematic approach.

Johann Dobereiner, the German chemist in the early 1800s was the first person to saw the trend and pattern in properties of elements. In 1829 he noted the similarity among the physical and chemical properties of elements, he grouped the elements in three called a triad.

In this triads he observed that mean of atomic weights first and last elements were equal to the atomic weight of the middle element. He also observed that the properties of the middle element were similar to the properties of the first and last element.

Dobereiner’s Triads
Figure 1: Dobereiner’s Triads

Dobereiner’s periodic law also referred to as the law of triad was only applicable to few elements, when new elements have discovered the law of triad failed to justify the periodicity of elements.

Another attempt of building the periodic table made by A.E.B. de Chancourtois a French geologist in 1862. He arranged element in increasing order of the atomic weights and created a cylindrical table in which elements with similar properties were close to each other, but he failed because it was not an efficient solution.

After that in 1865 the English chemist, John Alexander Newlands profounded the Law of Octave. He made a periodic table by placing elements in increasing order of their atomic weights and noted that every eighth element in the table has similar chemical and physical properties to the first element.

Newlands’ Octaves
Figure 2: Newlands’ Octaves

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