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J. J. Thomson's Cathode Ray Tube Experiments

Thomson's all three experiments are discussed. He studied magnetic and electric properties of cathode rays and determined the mass-to-charge ratio of the electron.

Mass Concentration

Mass concentration is a volumetric measure like molarity. It is the ratio of the mass of a solute to the volume of solution.

Molality

Molality is a concentration that tells how much a solute is present per kg of the solvent.

Molarity

Molarity is an important concept in analytical chemistry. Many calculations of chemistry involves molarity.

Real-life Examples of Boyle's Law

Boyle's law can be found on many everyday activities. The article highlights some of them.

Mole Fraction

The mole fraction of a substance in the mixture is the ratio of the mole of the substance in the mixture to the total mole of the mixture. Since it is the ratio of moles to moles, it is a dimensionless quantity. The mole fraction is sometimes called the amount fraction.

Mass Fraction

The mass fraction of a substance in a mixture is the ratio of the mass of the substance to the total mass of the mixture. It is also known as mass per cent or percentage by mass when expressing in percentage. Since the mass fraction is a ratio of mass to mass, it is a dimensionless quantity.

Empirical Formula

The empirical formula is the formula formed by atoms of a compound (or a molecule) such that atoms of an element are in the simplest relative ratio.

Percentage Composition

A compound is a pure substance made up of different elements. So, it consists of atoms of different elements. Examples of compounds are water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), sulphuric acid (H2SO4), potassium hydroxide (KOH), methane (CH4), acetic acid (CH3COOH). All these compounds contain at least two atoms of elements.