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Hydrogen Bonding in Chemistry

The hydrogen bond (aka H-bond) is an electrostatic force arising from the polar nature of the molecule.

9 min read

Intermolecular Forces in Chemistry

Chemical molecules are under the constant influence of various chemical forces. They dictate the chemical and physical characteristics of chemical substances.

8 min read

Lewis Acid and Base Theory

In the early 1900s, Gilbert N. Lewis, one of the well-known American chemists, introduced the concept of Lewis acids and bases. Today, his theory has led us to a better understanding of what acids and bases are and has been able to get explanations for many chemical reactions, which remained unclear.

7 min read

List of apparatus used in chemistry lab

Chemistry laboratories are spaces where we test learned theories and try to put them into practice. It facilitates us to conduct experiments, measurements, and research & development.

6 min read

Sigma and pi bonds

Different orbitals make different types of overlap in different situations. And based on a type of overlap, we classify them as a sigma or pi bond.

4 min read

Thermodynamic Processes

In this article, we will go through various types of processes in thermodynamics.

5 min read

Types of Chemical Reactions

There are thousands of chemical reactions. But most of them can be categorized into a few basic types.

4 min read

Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

Chemical kinetics is a branch of physical chemistry that involves the study of the rate of chemical reactions.

3 min read


Hybridization is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals, which are suitable for chemical bonding. The total number of atomic orbitals before mixing always equals the number of newly formed hybrid orbitals. In methane, four atomic orbitals (one 2s and three 2p) mix to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals—we will explain this in detail later on.

10 min read

Hess Law

The law was revealed by Swiss-Russian chemist and doctor Germain Henri Hess. He introduced the law in its 1840’s publication.

10 min read

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